Blood cancer is one of the malignant cancers, causing the person suffering from serious health problems, even touching the door of death.
1. How do blood cancer cells form and develop?
Our bodies are made up of billions of cells. These cells are constantly being produced, developed and replaced by dead cells, or help to heal damaged cells after an injury.
Normally, cells grow and multiply in a certain sequence, but damaged genes can grow abnormally and from there develop into tumors, including:
Benign tumors (non-carcinogenic): Not invasive to surrounding organs and tissues of the body.
Malignant tumors (cancer): These tumors will grow, which may be limited to the original range but if treated or treated in time, they will invade surrounding tissues. , become invasive cancer.
The transformation from a normal cell to a cancer cell has to go through many different stages, also known as the transformation from a precancerous lesion to a malignant tumor. It can be said that the interaction between a person’s genetic factors and external factors are the factors that cause this transformation. External factors include:
Physical carcinogenic agents: Ionizing radiation and ultraviolet rays
Chemical carcinogens: Asbestos (asbestos), aflatoxin (a food contaminant), arsenic (a drinking water contaminant) and components of tobacco smoke
Biological carcinogens: Infections with some viruses, bacteria or parasites.
Blood cancer, also known as leukemia, occurs when the marrow and lymphatic system are disturbed, creating malignant white blood cells. These white blood cells proliferate out of control and need of the body, they overwhelm healthy cells in the blood so that blood does not complete the task as usual.
In the blood, there are three types of cells including red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, which nourishes the organs and organs of the human body. White blood cells function against foreign substances such as chemicals and microorganisms entering the body and create antibodies against infection.
Platelets are responsible for blood clotting, avoiding bleeding in the wound. When the number of white blood cells increases dramatically, they will lack food as well as a nutritional source, so white blood cells will eat red blood cells themselves. This causes the body to not have enough blood to nourish, gradually the body becomes weak, has no resistance and it is a premise to cause blood cancer.
2. Types of blood cancer
Blood cancer consists of three main groups, including:
Leukocytes are extremely important in the immune system, they are resistant to infections. However, the sudden increase and strong growth of this cell make the patient lose the inherent resistance of the body.
When suffering from acute leukemia, a large number of immature white blood cells are produced and exist in the body, they clog the bone marrow and prevent the bone marrow from producing blood cells. other. Leukemia makes people with severe anemia persist, lasting to death.
This type of blood cancer affects the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is an extremely important part of the immune system, which protects the body from infections and diseases. When the body produces too many disorganized lymphocytes and their long existence causes overload, causing the immune system is seriously damaged. This type of cancer can develop in many parts of the body, including lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen and some other organs.
2.3 Multiple myeloma
This is a form of blood cancer of plasma cells – found in bone marrow and makes antibodies against infection. When having multiple myeloma, a large number of plasma cells gather abnormally in the bone marrow and prevent the bone marrow from working according to its function.
3. Blood cancer in children
Currently, blood cancers in children are becoming more and more common. According to research from experts, children with leukemia usually aged between 3 and 4 years old. However, the symptoms of the disease are usually not obvious and are difficult to identify, such as erratic fever, pale skin, mucous membranes, excessive night sweats, etc. These symptoms usually appear only. for a few days or weeks.
Types of blood cancers common in children, including:
– Acute lymphoma leukemia (ALL)
– Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
– Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)
– Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
– Teenage myeloid leukemia (JMML)
4. Causes of blood cancer
Currently, medicine has not yet determined the cause of blood cancer, but there are several risk factors that can cause disease, including:
– Frequent exposure to radioactive sources or patients receiving radiation therapy
– Patients with cancer are treated with medication
– People who work in environments that contain toxic chemicals like benzene and formaldehyde.
– Diseases caused by genetic changes such as Down syndrome, viral or other blood diseases.
5. What are the symptoms of blood cancer?
The signs and symptoms of blood cancer usually vary depending on the number of white blood cells in the blood and depending on where the malignant leukocytes gather. The following are the most common symptoms in patients with leukemia:
– High fever, chills, accompanied by flu-like symptoms
– Headache, joint pain caused by pinched spinal cord
– Extremely tired body, pale skin due to lack of red blood cells
– Or tooth bleeding due to impaired platelet coagulation function
– Susceptible to infections due to white blood cells that do not function as an anti-bacterial
– Anorexia, uncontrolled weight loss
– The body is prone to bleeding and bruising
– Frequent night sweats
– Irritability or swelling in the abdomen
6. Treatment of blood cancer
Blood cancer is a fast and complex cancer, if not detected and treated promptly can lead to death. Before choosing the treatments, patients will be tested, analyzed the situation carefully. The treatment regimen will also depend on the stage of illness and the patient’s health status. A number of blood cancer treatments may be prescribed for patients, including:
Destroy blood cancer cells by drug, injection, intravenous drug injection or injection into cerebrospinal fluid. Besides, it also helps prevent the growth and development of leukemia cells. This method will be performed periodically.
6.2 Radiation therapy
Destroy cancer cells with high energy beams
6.3 Biological therapy
Destroy blood cancer cells by passing monoclonal antibody to the patient. This method also helps improve the body’s natural immune system and slows the growth of blood cancer cells.
6.4 Marrow / Stem cell transplant
This method is usually applied after the patient has been treated with chemotherapy or radiation. The patient is implanted with healthy stem cells through a large vein. These transplanted cells will replace the destroyed cells during previous treatment.
7. Blood cancer prevention measures
Blood cancer is very difficult to treat if it is detected at a later stage. Therefore, you should pay attention to your health problems as well as proactively prevent disease in advance. To effectively prevent blood cancer, you can do the following:
– Avoid frequent contact with chemicals: For example, herbicides and benzene
– Avoid contact with radiation rays: You should try to minimize the time of exposure to high radiation.
– Exercise every day: Regular exercise is very good at preventing cancer, especially blood cancer. Every day you should spend 30 minutes to exercise.
– Scientific diet: Reduce your intake of saturated and trans fats, eat whole grains, fruits and vegetables.